Twelve San-Franciscan-Parisian Macarons: Observation about A Gift Box of Macarons Traveling Abroad

The macaron, although a classic French confection, compacts female-centered language, urban-life, and simple design throughout different cultures and regions into an independent sign.


The macaron we are familiar with originated from Italy as a mellow and homie cookie in single-piece form without added colors. Then Ladurée, a famous French luxury bakery, developed it into a colorful and elegant dessert, which is made up of two almond meringue cookies sandwich a rich filling. The fillings are usually a choice from butter cream, ganache, and fruit jam, sometimes being a seasonal composition. The bakers and designers give macarons countless colors to match the various flavors respectively. Macaron demonstrates what food design is, rather than food art. When staring at a box of macarons, we can sense that the smooth surface and the slightly arched shape of them looks quite standard. Most of those perfect and precise macarons are purely made by hand. It could be industrially produced, but that is not the authentic one that caters to the majority people. Before I learned the recipe of macaron, I believed it was made in mold or at least with the assist on machines, yet it is not. Plus, the process of making macaron is complicated due to too many factors that need to be stabilized, such as the strict ratio of ingredients, the degree of whisking the egg, and temperature of drying and baking, time and humidity. Compared with any other desserts made without mold, macaron is so sophisticated and well-controlled, which I believe is an important value of design. The sense of control, but not over doing it, differentiates design process from artistic creation. Macaron is controlled to be so simple and small, but still has huge space to add characteristics on it.

Macaron is so fascinating to me for its inedible looking. My mom bought a box of macaron from France seven years ago, it was my first time eating macaron. The only impression I had was it looked like toys and tasted surprisingly sweet. They were 12 different macarons sat tightly in the box, and almost all of them were intact. The precision of thickness and size is the reason why they were safely squeezing in a small box even after a long trip from France to China. The 12 pieces were in totally different colors. I still remember that one of them was violet with glittering surface treatment. It was confusing to see their round and colorful appearances at the first glance. If the homemade cookies are wood, other desserts are glass, then macarons are more likely to be plastic for their variable choices of coloring and finishing and neutral temperature. How could I possibly eat them? Yet, the first one I tried was the purple party-looking macaron because of its wired and appealing impression.

Moreover, the macaron is the representative of luxury dessert. On one hand, the visually accurate and delicate image holds its value of high quality. On another hand, the artisanal details and crafted decoration elevate the added value. The foot of each macaron cookie, also well known as the skirt of macaron’s edge, is a decisive symbol that if macarons are made successfully. I recently purchased a box of macarons in Chantal Guillon. Its star macaron is the salted caramel flavor, boasting a tan basing color with a golden-brushed paint on the top surface. This hand drawing pattern announces how fancy and popular that macaron is.

Chantal Guillon

Macarons started spreading through America after its appearance in the Tv show Gossip Girl. Now, we can find many different bakeries, restaurants and even supermarkets selling macarons.

I bought a box of macarons from Chantal Guillon since it is the most popular San- Francisco-based macaron bakery here. It claims that it is following a French traditional style, especially the recipe. But I still noticed there were some unique San Francisco characteristics in its design system.

The interior of Chantal Guillon is bright and clean, showing their colorful macarons and ingredients in glass showcases and glassware. The lightings are plump and cute colored glass, resonating with the image of macarons. The furniture in either white or dark brown, which is cohesive with the logo, bearing modern straight and rigid edges.

Chantal Guillon has some fun decorative models, like small pumpkins and crows, and black and orange macarons that show the Halloween theme. Ladurée, the most classic and famous bakery in France, has a more vintage and girlish style. Its interior atmosphere is full of creamy mint and pink, with the furniture being Rococo style. The decorations are mainly the collection of packages and some products, such as candles and cosmetics. These two brands are both elegant, while Chantal Guillon is less romantic but more neutral and modern. This starts to sketch a relatively efficient and modern San Francisco. The customers may include more males than in Paris.

The visual identity language also extends to the packaging and logo design. The packages from Chantal Guillon has a pinch of modern and technology style. For example, the pattern the package is the collection of Chantal Guillon’s most classic macarons on white background, while the patterns are simple, flat and vectorial with high-saturation colors. This reminds me of the icons from current website and apps. The logo is a light green letter “G” with a funny twist on it. All the small texts on the package use the typeface of Century Gothic, which is also straight and simple. However, comparing with Ladurée, the logo and packaging includes laurel and full brand name in a serif typeface on a mint blue background, and it even has the package designed as a jewelry box with rose pattern on it.

When we look at the macaron themselves, Chantal Guillon has more natural color choices than Ladurée. For instance, Ladurée offers one of its classic flavors, Marie Antoinette tea flavor, the macaron is Tiffany blue. You can even purchase macarons with glittering or shiny decoration in some bakeries, but Chantal Guillon only has the tropical-fruit colors with lower saturation, which are more similar to natural food. This implies people here are more enjoying natural and organic food in San Francisco, even though they may just look like it.

Chantal Guillon keeps the original architecture of French macaron, but everything around the macarons are sketching the image of San Francisco: modern, efficient, neutral, environment-conscious. Furthermore, instead of the historical and classic aesthetics of macaron culture, it tells more about a fresh, commercial-driven and light fad.

Current Context

The design of macarons fits the modern city’s fast-pace life well, especially for females. The box I purchased was a set include twelve macarons. It is a twelve-piece gift box with twelve total different color tones macarons. The shopping experience resembles that in an accessories or flower stores,  with the visual excitement made me hesitate and addict to all kinds of choices. The multiple choice of macarons is one reason why they are so charming to customers, and slightly tend to cater females.

The prevalence of macarons reflects the contemporary urban habit and life. People no longer intake sweet for hunger or comfort, but for elevating the quality of life and rewarding themselves easily. Macarons also participate in more social occasions in the form of food or decoration.

The diverse color system of macarons directly caters the needs of food stag rammers. As a good-looking dessert, especially with well-designed packaging. It naturally pleases the customers. The small size and rich filling of macaron allow people bite it elegantly and chew it slowly with out the guilt of eating a huge-calorie monster. The sweetness and crunchy shell of macaron bring the joy of eating. Also, the dry skin of macaron provides a neat eating experience. Consumers can easily and quickly purchase a box of macarons and take it away. Based on these qualities, you can imagine a lady takes away a box of macaron to her office, and shares some with passed-by colleagues then enjoy the rest slowly and quietly in an afternoon.

Macaron, the small and light confection fills itself into the gaps of the fast-pace life and subtle distance between people, and smartly adopts itself into different cultural contexts.

The Most Neutral and Warm Grain: An Observation about the Classic White Rice from Southern China

The white rice from south China, my hometown, is oryza sativa, specifically the sticky, short-grained japonica variety.

In all kinds of agricultural merchandise, rice is the third highest production all over the globe after sugarcane and maize, and the white rice is a staple food in many countries. In China, I almost eat rice every day. It is recorded that ores sariva rice originated from the Pearl River valley region in China, based on the study of genome variation. Currently, China is the biggest rice producer worldwide.

 On one hand, white rice is a neutral material in my physical world, it can be light and heavy, hard and soft, transparent and opaque, dry and sticky. On the other hand, it is one of the warmest materials in my mental world.

Harvesting from the Land

White rice, short-grained oryza sativa, is a semiaquatic plant. It is the main grain product in the south of China, where I was born, I am raised by rice. Relying on the Yangtze River, the sub-tropical humid monsoon climate and enough water resource allow white rice growing widely and stably. It is planted in water with soil, which makes its property naturally mild and slightly humid.

After about 3-month growth, the grains turn into yellow and start to drop. Then farmers harvest rice by cutting the rice stalks and separate the grain from the stalk by a mechanized thresher. After that, the rice will be dried and milled to remove the chaff, the outer husks by rice huller. At this point, we get the brown rice. After milling away the bran and polishing, we finally get the white rice as a commodity.

The Moment of Raw Rice 

The white rice before cooking looks like a tiny version of Hetian jade, a type of white nephrite. It is semitransparent, with a little starch on the surface, it looks and feels glossy but not shiny. When I shine a light on rice, half of thelight passes through it, and the rice stores another half of light—just like jade—subtly and warmly.

When I pick up the raw rice, scrolling it with my fingers, the moment of its sharpness interrupts the sense of its gentle look. By holding a single unit of rice, it is so tiny that I can hardly feel any weight, but its density is actually higher than the human body. Grabbing a handful of rice, it becomes obviously heavier. When I pour a cup of rice into the cooker, the grains are hitting the wall of the metal pot and creates a stream of dense echo, the echo of heaviness and hardness.

In the contrast of its smooth look, rice is so dry that it can absorb a lot of moisture and keep the environment dry and clean. A traditional way to dry or store food for a longer time is put it inside the rice jar. The starch attached on rice’s surface it one main factor of being so dry, but it has to be washed away before cooking a perfect pot of rice. The washing water is kind of magical water, which can be used for cleaning vegetables, greasy vessels and our faces, due to the rich nutrition it can be also used to water and nourish plants.

By washing the rice several times, the water becomes clear and transparent so that the rice won't be over sticky after cooking. Then let the raw rice sit in water for half an hour, for leaking the water through the skin of rice, in order to make it more moist and chewy.

The Experience of Cooked Rice

The original property in Chinese traditional medical science is warm. Moreover, in China the most common form of its utility, eating, is warm, whatever it is steamed rice, porridge, or fried rice.

After cooked, the water is fully absorbed by the rice and reduces the density of rice. In the opposite of raw rice, it can help to keep moisture. For Instance, the toast made with cooked rice will taste softer and moister than the ordinary one.

The cooked rice becomes bigger, white, opaque, and sticky. Its stickiness is my most important criteria of its quality, and it is fairly different from other types of grains. Cooked white rice is more adhesive than Jasmine rice but not as smashed and vague as sweet rice, each grain clearly maintains its independency as a unit. The white rice will loosely clump together as the best grain that I can eating with chopsticks without stick into an entire solid or keep falling.

The stickiness makes rice as the main ingredient of making traditional glue, and even the Great Wall was glued by rice mixture. However, rice also acts very firmly compared with sweet rice, which is also called sticky rice. When we make Tangyuan, a classic rice ball mixed with ground sweet rice and white rice, the latter hardens the sticky rice flour and makes it into a chewy and clear sphere form. Only using sticky rice flour will make the ball looks like melted, it cannot hold the shape.

Rice looks and tastes so plain to many people. Yet, it is so related to my personal memory, the richness of rice already rooted in my mind. When there’s the freshly steamed or boiled rice, I can smell corn and slightly floral aroma, and start projecting round shape in my mind, maybe it is the shape of fulfillment and happiness.

It’s time to fill a bowl of rice. To maintain the fulfilling sense, I usually fill the rice taller than the edge of the bowl, make it looks like a semi-sphere rice cap. My first bite is always a chopstick of white rice in order to feel the authentic flavor. While chewing rice slowly, I can feel the sweetness of the starch spread in my mouth. The complicated subtlety of its properties makes me feel warmer. I can even eat an entire bowl of rice with only a pinch of salt or soy sauce, which makes the pure white rice sweeter. However, most of the people usually don't directly eat rice as a dish. There’s a Chinese common expression that a dish can help to consume a lot of rice if it tastes very rich or slightly heavy, which implies rice is more likely to be the supporting role on the table.

I cannot tell if rice is the side dish that makes those main dishes more balanced and delicious. Or, rice is actually the texture that we add to flavors, it makes every dinning moment more concrete. It extends the time of chewing the flavors from dishes and sauces. White rice is so neutral that it can compromise any kinds of tasting characteristics. While chewing it, each pinch of food gradually unrolls layers of the flavors rather than a single taste without rice; the mild cate tends to be stronger and richer in the mouth, and the sharp and spicy bite is tendered by rice.

Furthermore, it is different from other starches. Your taste bud need spend more time with rice, comparing with the processed fine pasta and noodle. However, it won’t consume your patience endlessly like those “healthier” and coarser grains. Rice keeps the beautiful moments of tasting various flavors but ends at an appropriate timing with a slightly sweet aftertaste.

Because my classic white rice is so neutral that it can be the most invisible food for each meal, but it also could dominate the whole table whatever those flavored dishes are complex or simple.

Tiny Ceremony: The Study of The Dematerialization of Chinese Teaism

Dematerialization is the process about minimizing form and even depriving physical existence while remaining the core experience at the same time. The form of experience is gradually reduced due to historical context and people’s needs in different era. The experience is improved through the process of dematerialization in some time in the history.

Teaism, also known as tea ceremony, originates from Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907) in China. Teaism is an experience includes exploring the spiritual world and enjoying the comforts of life. Chinese people believe that the ideal effect of Teaism can lead people to a peaceful status and then arouse the pondering about life, human, and philosophy of the universe, such as Taoism, Confucianism.

Teaism is an elaborate process including the art of tea, the environment and tea sets, the etiquette of drinking tea, and the social role of tea. All the elements are dematerialized with historical context changing in China. It is more available, individual, faster and lighter in current time. This represents people’s universal desire of pursuing convenience, equality and individualization. Nevertheless, the core experience, brewing, and processing tea, haven’t been changed or disappeared. 

The art of tea, which indicates the procedure and action of making tea, has been simplified to a great extent. In this information era, the pace of life inevitably becomes faster. People are spending shorter time on everything, in comparison with ancient time. For example, Tang Dynasty is one of the two richest imperial dynasties in Chinese history. It was in Tang Dynasty that people invented tea ceremony because of having leisure time and money. The Song Dynasty was even richer than Tang, where the art of tea was quite complicated. Back then, the tea ceremony included crushing the cake of tea, grinding tea into powder, sifting the powder, putting it into a bowl, adding hot water and whisking the tea. When it came to Ming and Qing Dynasty, the tea of art was famous as Kungfu Cha. It no longer needs the cake of tea and was replaced by more natural tealeaves. The process includes warming the pot and cup, bathing the tea with hot water, pouring out the first brew, brewing the tea and serving. Nowadays, people can just put the tealeaves or flowers on the top container, adding hot water, waiting for a short brewing period and drink tea.

The process of making tea is reduced from a huge system to a one-step action. However, the experience of making tea hasn’t changed too much. It still symbolizes leisure. People feel comfort when looking at the tealeaves unfolding, floating up and down in the water.

The environment and wares of the tea ceremony are dematerialized with the art of tea, especially the tea set is minimized because the process is simplified. This indicates the trend of all physical product design. People naturally pursue the convenience and coziness, which leads most of the interface and package of the product become more succinct and understandable. The interface of the tea ceremony is tea set.

The quantity of tea set is extremely reduced and the space of drinking tea is more variable based on the dematerialization. In Tang and Song Dynasty, people need at least grinder, sifter, kettle, whisk, numerous cup and bowls for each step, and it was common to have a specialized room and table just for tea ceremony. From this moment on, tea lovers had the habit called “raising the pot”, they drenched the purple clay pot with the overflowing tea water every time they drink tea. The pot would be more polished, shimmering a glow after a considerable period.

In Ming and Qing Dynasty, people drank tea in a specific room and only with clay teapot, tea wash and cups on a special tray. The tray was used to contain the extra water from washing tea and tea set. It was big enough to hold all the tea set at that time.

Today, tea making can happen in one simple cup with the infuser on the top of it. This allows people to make tea almost in one step: pouring the water to the infuser with tealeaves or flower, waiting for brewing, removing the infuser and drinking. Besides, people use glass tea ware more often. It is physically and visually lighter than clay and iron. That means fewer people, except the connoisseurs, keep the habit of raising clap pot. Tea table and tea tray were replaced by a piece of thin bamboo tea pad, which can be rolled and stored when not using. The interface of the tea ceremony is the lighter and independent teaware, yet it still keeps the sense of ceremony, the tiny ceremony. Tiny ceremony allows users drink tea almost anywhere with much shorter preparation, and drinkers are not necessary to have any knowledge before their first brewing.

 The etiquette of drinking tea has been condensed with the art of tea simultaneously. The heavy etiquette is dematerialized in the process of pursuing the equality among people. The idea of Teaism first appeared in the Chinese ancient palace. When people were drinking tea with the emperor, they had to show respect and thankfulness through kneeling and kowtow. After Qing Dynasty, knocking the table with a knuckle to the person who served you tea was regarded as a formal courtesy in Teaism, which has remained up to now. In addition, people can just say thanks or nod heads to express their gratitude.

The action of knocking table is actually simplified from the action of kowtow. The purpose of thanking has not changed, yet the hierarchy of identity and the form of inequality are totally discarded. This also implies that tea ceremony is much more available and common among ordinary people. However, people still keep the elegance and politeness when drinking tea with others, which is also part of the Teaism experience.

The social impact of Teaism has changed. The form of social activity shifted to a more individual action. That’s one of the design trends, everything become more personal, private and customized. Through design, those big factories and professional services gradually walk into the public daily life, live in the home and even on the desk.

In Song Dynasty, it was very popular that people made tea together and competed the flavor and tea bubble they made (pic 4). Then, with a more casual way of making tea, people drank tea when they were having a conversation or pondering alone. Today, it becomes so casual and common for various reasons, such as healthier lifestyle, relaxing stress, bringing peace and family custom. From Song till today, tea ceremony transferred from a sizeable social activity to a simple daily habit, just like American’s coffee. Modern people don’t have much time and space to set up the entire environment to brew the drink and chat with friends. Also, We are more likely to enjoy the leisure comfort alone, such as reading the book, watching TV and freelancing at home, that is where tea lives now.

The dematerialization of Teaism reflects the changes of Chinese society and common people’s lives, which is based on both practical and cultural context. This eventually reveals the trends of design for the changing needs. Things are designed to be more available to achieve, easier to learn, faster to consume and more flexible to choose.

I designed a Portable Meat Farm for the future home. It is an electrical appliance in the future to grow meat at home. Based on my research on Micro Farming, I have found that people tend to favor extreme organic and healthy food. People’s trusts on supermarkets, farms and authorizations are gradually lost. By farming at home, people can apply food autonomy so as to have an ideal health and transparent information. This device can help users plant customized meat at home by using the nutrition from trusted organic food and additional animal cell nutrition. Users can enjoy the healthiest organic meat, without feeling guilty of killing animals.

This design dematerializes the material, land and risk that cost in the farming process. Meanwhile, it dematerializes the negative feeling of eating meat through killing animals.

Nevertheless, will the path of dematerialization bounce in the future?

Take coffee as an example. The role of coffee is quite similar to tea in American culture. The invention of capsule coffee machine symbolizes the extreme dematerialization of coffee making process. The popularity of coffee store also provides affordable but relatively high-quality coffee. However, many people stick to using vacuum coffee maker, French press, and another coffee makers to perform their tiny domestic coffee ceremony. Sometimes less is more but sometimes simple is boring. Thus, I think the answer is “YES”. Actually we can find some existing cafe where people are promoting the tea and coffee through performing the process of making.

The trend of dematerialization behind many experiences is inevitable. However, as an industrial designer, I believe in the value of physical objects and the beauty of weightiness. The material and manufacturing or crafting process of an object naturally tell the story with no-word language. The energy cost in the process is the elaborate flavor of tea; the scratch left on the object is the luster of the aged clay pot; the meditating time spent in the Teaism experience is an independent mental treasure.

In the future, more and more people will be willing to go back to the period before dematerialization and minimization. Dematerialization will be the sifter, which helps to eliminate all the unnecessary complexity. Then we will discover and redesign the authentic aesthetics through human’s wisdom.



Flusser, Vilém, and Anthony Mathews. The Shape of Things: A Philosophy of Design. London: Reaktion, 1999. Print.

Elizabeth Kolbert, Dymaxion Man: The Visions of Buckminster Fuller, The New Yorker magazine, June 9, 2008. Print.

Hara, Ken'ya. Designing Design. Baden, Switzerland: Lars Müller Publishers, 2007. Print.

The authors, Over the Water: Fujiko Nakaya, Exploratorium, 2013.

Thackara, John. In the Bubble: Designing in a Complex World. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2005. Print.

McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We

Make Things. New York: North Point Press, 2002. Print.

Mendini, Alessandro, and Vito Acconci. Tea & Coffee Towers: Twenty-two Tea and

Coffee Sets. Milano: Electa, 2003. Print.

Chinese High Tea:

Wu Healing / A Tea Ceremony:


NFU - Tea:

 Tea or Coffee ?:

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Dutch Design: Study Based on Dutch Designer Marije Vogelzang

Dutch design has several unique qualities, all of which combine together make Holland a worldwide design pioneer. The design and the path to it have the beauty of simplicity and purity. Dutch designers build community and connection between people. They are also good at capturing and reflecting sensitivity and emotion through design.

 Marije Vogelzang is one Dutch designer who exemplifies these qualities; she designs eating experiences instead of merely designing the food itself. Vogelzang uses food as mediium to give simple and straightforward proposal, such as create a communal eating experience. She also creates community and connections through her projects. She captures sensitivity and emotion and then visualizes them in her projects. 

On a long dining table, the tablecloth was one single large piece of white cloth. The end of the tablecloth was extending and suspended to ceiling. This created a clean and independent space based on the proportion of the dining table. The participants sat with their heads and hands inside the cloth and their body outside, which concealed people’s clothes behind the tablecloth.

 The food in plates was also presented intentionally. Sharing food on a table is an uncommon custom in Europeans’ dining table. In this dinner, each side of the people have one kind of food with two servings. Everyone had the serving that was different from the one face to this side, which meant the food was ready to be shared to the opposite person.

It is unusual to see designers playing with their food as a material and experience. The Sharing Dinner is quite an experimental design even in the field of eating experience design.

 Dutch designers favor the simple material and form. In many of Vogelzang’s projects, I find she often uses white as the main tone. The large white tablecloth in the Sharing Dinner kept the space pure and clean. All the participants are naturally included in this isolated space. I can’t get distracted by form and surface of Vogelzang’s design, the only information I read is about sharing and connection. However, the tablecloth is not only a connecting media, but also works to dissolve the social hierarchy in the company.

Moreover, the design path that many Dutch designers take is simple and straightforward. Instead of brainstorming idea widely, they often choose a unique point and develop it further. This path looks like a real experiment which has a clear subject or clue in the beginning. The typical method they use to develop their ideas is making

things, which is similar to experiment but it is much more practical than brainstorming on paper. All the experimental actions are built on the clear subject and expand the possibilities related to it.

In Vogelzang’s Sharing Dinner, there were not overly-designed tableware and decorations in the space. The main subject - connecting people physically - was enhanced thanks to other elements had been downplayed by using simple white tablecloth, dishes and unornamented glassware. Thus, The message through design is quite simple and straightforward to both diners from Droog and the readers like me.

Dutch design is also the pioneer of exploring the relationship and connection between people. Much of today’s popular product and service designs are single-user-centered, designers provide people the customized design for private and personal experience. However, Dutch design takes the different path. The Sharing Dinner was designed for community. Everyone was physically connected by the tablecloth. When people were moving, the movement would fluctuate to the nearing participants. In additional, the food sharing action reinforced the connection between people. In this company dinner, all the typical boundaries and cautions between people were dissolved. The status of the participants were erased and only the pleasure were left on each participant’s face.


Dutch designers plumb the depths of emotion and sensitivity and transfer their abstract inspirations into physical and readable language through design. In the Sharing Dinner, the food was no longer about nutrition or gastronomy. Just like Vogelzang said, “Food is the most rich and important material in the world.” It played the role of physical and chemical catalyst to increase people’s emotion and happiness as a design material. The designed movement of tablecloth and the dissolving of hierarchic identity were so subtle but natural. Though I am from the eastern culture in the world, I can get the idea of Christmas spirit through learning about this project.

Dutch designers are able to scent out the trends of design. They don’t chase after the individual needs and popularity. Dutch design is the process of exploring, testing and even tasting! Designers are willing to break and redefine the rules that we often follow. Instead of calling herself a food designer, Vogelzang tags herself as an eating designer. She is not only a pioneer of design experiences, but also the space and systems used to create these experiences. "When I think about food I think about something much bigger than only cooking. Food is agriculture, biology, psychology, transport, human connection, animal connection, waste, health, nurture, nature, science, and also gastronomy.”2 Vogelzang said this insightfully when she was asked about the education of eating design. This reveals that the design is no longer a single object now, it is all about the presentation of experience.

These qualities of Dutch design encourage me a lot as a designer. In the future, when I design the object, I will think more about the core utility and experience of the object instead of its traditional definition and frame.

In additional, I will try to focus on one material and explore it with practical experiment and prototyping, then reducing all the unimportant elements of my work. The reason is that I was encouraged to be imaginative and creative in the past, the approach I took is to keep distracting myself from the main subject. Sometimes, people cannot get my main point when I am trying to sell my ideas or presenting my work. This is a frustrating experience as a designer.

Also, I am not worried about the commercial value of the design. I believed the deeper I

will get in my design development, the more practical and understandable my design will be. Then the suitable consumers will be convinced by my design.

Dutch design really gives me many valuable suggestions about simplicity and designing experiences.


• Ramakers, Renny, and Gijs Bakker. Droog Design: Spirit of the Nineties. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1998. Print.
• Betsky, Aaron, and Adam Eeuwens. False Flat: Why Dutch Design Is so Good. London: Phaidon, 2004. Print.
• Klanten, Robert. Create: Eating, Design and Future Food. Berlin: Gestalten, 2008. Print.
• Droog & Dutch Design. Utrecht: Centraal Museum, 2000. Print.
• Thomas Howells and Leanne Hayman. Experimental Eating. London: Black Dog Publishing. 2014
• Dezeen. Food is "the most important material in the world" says Marije Vogelzang. 8 July 2014.
• Dutch Profile. Marije Vogelzang.
• Issuu. Eat Love.
• ⾷食物設計的2個「餵」什麼,⾷食物設計師 Jinhyun Jeon 與 Marije Vogelzang 的飲⾷食⾰革命.
• Marije Volgezang.
• Zahid Sarder. Hands-Off: New Dutch Design at the Confluence of Technology & Craft. Design speech in California College of the Arts. March, 2015.